CAUDI'NI, a tribe of the Samnites bordering upon Campania. The name is evidently connected with that of the town of Caudium, which must probably have been at one period the capital or chief city of the tribe. But it seems certain that the appellation was not confined to the citizens of Caudium and ita immediate territory. Livy speaks in more than one passage of the Caudini as a tribe or people, in the same terms as of the Hirpini (Marcellus ab Kola crebras excursiones in agruin Hirpinum et Samnites Caudinot fecit, xxiii. 41; Caudinus 5amnis gravius devastatus, Id. xxiv. 20). and Niebuhr supposes them to have been one of the tour tribes of which the Samnite confederacy was composed. (Nieb. vol. i. p. 107, vol. ii. p. 85.) This is, however, very doubtful, and it is remarkable that we find no mention of the Caudini as a separate tribe during the wars of the Romans with the Samnites. Perhaps, however, they were included as a matter of course, whencvtT the Samnites were mentioned, as their country must have been continually the scene of hostilities; and Velleius Paterculus (ii. 1) speaks of the Caudini as the people with whom the treaty was concluded by the Romans after their defeat at the Forks, where Livy uniformly talks of the Samnites. It is impossible to determine with any accuracy the limits of their territory: the great mountain mass of the Taburnns, called by Gratius Faliseus (Cyneget. 509) " Caudinus Taburnus," was m the heart of it; and it is probable that it joined that of the Hirpini on the one side and of the Pentri on the other, while on the W. it bordered immediately on Campania. But the name is not recognised by any of the geographers as a general appellation, and appears to huve fallen into disuse: the Caudini of Pliny (iii. 11. s. 16) are only the citizens of Caudium.
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography, Volume 1 edited by Sir William Smith