Armenian is an Indo-European language spoken in the Caucasus mountains and also used by the Armenian Diaspora. It is its own independent branch of the family of the Indo-European languages. From the modern languages Greek seems to be the most closely related to Armenian.

While it contains many Indo-European roots, its phonology has been influenced by neighboring Caucasian languages, so that it shares a three-way distinction between voiceless, voiced, and ejective stops and fricatives.

Armenian was historically split in to two vaguely-defined primary dialects: Eastern Armenian, the form spoken in modern-day Armenia, and Western Armenian, the form spoken by Armenians in Anatolia. After the Armenian Genocide, the western form was primarily spoken only by those belonging to the diaspora.